Развитие форм будущего времени в ранненовоанглийский период (на английском языке)

Развитие форм будущего времени в ранненовоанглийский период (на английском языке)
Английский
курсовая
35
2018
RUB 2625
2625р.

Нажмите, чтобы зарегистрироваться. Работа будет добавлена в личный кабинет.

Introduction 3
Chapter I. Theoretical aspects of English future forms 6
1.1. General characteristics of verbs 6
1.2. Ways of forming future tense in the English language 9
Chapter II. 2.1. The historical development of the future construction in Old English 17
2.1. The origin of the future tense in Old English 17
2.2. Origin of the verbs “will” and “shall” 20
2.3. The origin of future form in ME and NE 28
Conclusion 31
Bibliography 34

Grammatically tense, as opposed to deictic temporal reference, is not a universal feature of language. Lyons asserted that " whether a language has a tense or not can be decided only on the basis of a grammatical analysis of the language; though not all languages have tense, it is probably true to say that all languages have various deictic adverbs or particles of time" (ibid: 678).
From a linguistic point of view, the future tense is a controversial issue. Many grammarians (Leech, 1971; Quirk et al., 1972, 1985; Palmer, 1988; Pennington, 1988) have argued that the future is not a true tense, although more recently, it has been accepted as such by many grammarians (e.g., Dahl, 1985; Maslove, 1985; Comrie, 1985, 1989; Hornstein, 1990; Declerck, 1991).
The theme of my course work sounds as following: “The development of the forms of the future tense in the early English period”. Linguists and grammarians are interested in the grammatical development of the forms of the future tense in the early English period, in its historical development and in their functions and syntactic features. A great contribution to the study of the origin and development of the future forms in the English language have made such scientists as: S. Johnson, J. Mason, G. Wallis, R. Quirk etc. This phenomenon and its function in English language were investigated by such prominent linguists as Vikulova E.A., Armstrong J. L., Mustanoja Tauno F., Klein W., Vater H., de Smet H., Cho J.Y., Zandvoort R. W., Broderick J.P., Turlova E. V., Espersen O. and others.
The problem of the theme is that translators, teachers who design courses and language learners must be able to understand the functions of the future tense and language contrasts between English and their native tongue. Finally, understanding the syntax and the use of the future tense is important for native speakers of English who want to communicate efficiently.
Verbs are an essential component of a sentence. They can describe an action, state or occurrence and form the main part of the predicate of a sentence. Action verbs are the verbs that describe an action or an occurrence whereas linking verbs are those that indicate a state. Sometimes a verb can contain more than one word. So the verb can be described as word denoting action (the term “action” embracing the meaning of activity (to walk, to speak, to play, to study), process (to sleep, to wait, to live), state (to be, to like, to know), relation (to consist, to resemble, to lack) and the like.
According to form, the verb can be described as a word that has certain grammatical features that are not shared by other parts of speech; they have the category of tense, aspect, voice.
The category of tense in English is a system of two-member oppositions showing the relation of the time of the process denoted by the verb to the present moment, or the moment of speaking. The existence of a future tense in English is problematic. Traditional grammar usually presents English as having a future tense expressed by will (for some speakers, also shall) and the citation form of the verb, e.g. Mary will get married tomorrow. But is it a tense? There are several objections to the traditional treatment of the said construction. The first objection concerns the meaning of the future tense in general: the future tense differs from the past and the present tense – the future describes a non-factive situation while the past and the present tense describe a factive situation. So, for instance, when we say that Mary will get married tomorrow, we do not present the situation as a fact; we only make a prediction or say what we think will happen. The second objection concerns the meaning peculiarities of will: the auxiliary will, apart from the meaning of prediction, has modal uses which do not necessarily have future time reference, e.g. He will go swimming in dangerous waters or He will be swimming now.
1. Бойцова Т.А., Кондаурова Л.Е., Соснин А.В. English Modals in Use. Модальный глагол в языке и речи / Т.А.Бойцова, Л.Е. Кондаурова, А.В. Соснин. – Н. Новгород: ООО «Стимул-СТ»,2011 – 118 с.
2. Смирмицкий А. И. Древнеанглийский язык/А. И. Смирницкий. – М., 1998. – 308с.
3. A History of the English Language/ Albert C.Baugh, Thomas Cable. – London, 2002. -406p.
4. Barkhudarov, L. S. Rusko-anglyskye jazykovye paraleli. In:Ruskyj jazyk za rubezhom. – M., 1972. – P. 55-56.
5. Binnk, R. I. Time and the verb: A guide to tense and aspect. - New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
6. Binnk, R. I. Time and the verb: A guide to tense and aspect.- New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
7. Comrie, B. Tense. - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
Dahl, O. Tense and aspect system. - Oxford: Blackwell, 1985.
8. Decklerck, R. Tense in English: its structure and use in discourse.- London: Routledge, 1991.
9. Declerck, R. Is there a relative past tense in English?// Lingua. – 1995. - №97. – P.1-36.
10. Dekeyser, X., Colen, S. Foundations of English Grammar: for University Students and Advanced Learners/ITL - International Journal of Applied Linguistics. - Volume 53. - Issue 1. - Jan 1981. - p. 88 – 92.Foundations of
11. Depraeteve, I. Some observations on the expression of temporal relation in future-time relative clauses//Linguistics. – 1994. - № (32). – P. 459-43.
12. English Grammar: For University Students and Advanced Learners/ Xavier Dekeyser, Betty Devriendt, Guy A.J. Tops, Steven Geukens, Sandra Colen. – Leuven:Acco, 1999.- 430p.
13. George O. Has English a Future Tense? //The Journal of English and Germanic Philology. – 2018. - No. 4. - pp.515-539.
14. Greenbaum, Sidney. The Oxford Companion to the English Language. - Oxford: OUP, 1996. – 672p.
15. Hogg Richard. An Introduction to Old English. - Edinburgh University Press 2002. – 174p. (88)
16. Huddleston, R., Pullum, G. K. The Verb. In: The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. -Cambridge University Press, 2002. – P.210.
17. Ilyish, B. History of the English Language. – Leningrad, 1973. – P.87.
18. Jespersen. O. Essentials of English Grammar. - Routledge, 2006. – P. 256.
19. Khaimovich, B. S., Rogovskaya, B. I. A Course in English Grammar. - M., 1967. – P. 163-164.
20. Klein, W. Time in language. - London: Routledge, 1994.
21. Klein, W. Time in language. - London: Routledge, 1994.
22. Klein, W., Vater, H. The Perfect in English and German// Kulikov L., Vater H. Typology of Verbal Categories.- Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1998. - pp. 215-235.
23. Leech, G. Meaning and the English verb.- London: Long, 1971.
24. Lyons, J. Semantics, V.2.- Cambridge University Press. New York, 1977.
25. Maslov, Y. Outline of contrastive aspectuality//Y. Maslov (ed.), Contrastive studies in verbal aspect.-Heidelberg: Julius Groos, 1985.
26. Mezenin S.M. A History of English (Life of language). - Moscow, 1997.
27. Palmer, F. The English verb. - London: Longman, 1988.
28. Pennington, M. Context and meaning of English simple tenses//Relc Journal. – 1988. – P.49-74.
29. Quirk, R. G., Leech, S. Greenbaum, S., & Svatvik, J. A comprehensive grammar of the English language.- London: Longman, 1985.
30. Shakespeare W. King Lear.- USA, Wordsworth classics, 2002. – 170p.
31. Shakespeare W. The Works of Shakespeare.- М.: Менеджер, 2011. Vol.I, III. – 346с., 684с.
32. Shakespeare W. Hamlet.- Н.: Сибирское университетское изд., 2010. – 170с.
33. Traugott, E. C. Constructions in grammaticalization// The handbook of historical linguistics. – New York (NY), 2003. – P. 624–647.
34. URL: http://runovschool.ru/learn_english/english_history/
35. Wagner, K. H. Generative Grammatical Studies in the Old English
language/K. H. Wagner. - Heidelberg: Julius Groos, 1969.
36. Whitman, R. L. English and English Linguistics. - New York, 1975. – P. 77.
37. Zandvoort R. W., Van Ek, JA. A Handbook of English Grammar. - London: Longman, 1966.